宣漢縣建設全國生態旅遊大縣紀實

驅車進入宣漢,首先印入眼簾的是茫茫蒼蒼的綠色,藍藍的天,清清的水,綠綠的山,宣漢正在朝茈國生態旅遊大縣的目標闊步進發。早在1999年6月,宣漢縣就被國家計委列為全國第一批生態環境建設試點縣。至目前,全縣投入工程建設資金1500萬元,群眾投工投勞207萬個,完成坡耕地治理840公頃,人工造林2973公頃,草地建設1143公頃。經過幾年的努力,光禿禿的山變成了花果山,黑黝黝的河流變成滿眼綠水,宣漢正逐漸成為四川東部一顆璀璨的綠色明珠。

  盤點資源審視縣情 生態旅遊優勢愈來明顯

  宣漢縣委、縣政府一班人保持清醒的頭腦,克服“不識廬山真面目,只緣身在此山中”的狹隘眼界,充分認識到宣漢生態旅遊資源優勢得天獨厚,發展生態旅遊是宣漢跨越發展的又一突破口,宣漢縣委、縣政府審時度勢,立足發展,茞晴騥V,響亮地提出了把宣漢建成“全國生態旅遊大縣”的嶄新目標。

  宣漢既是一個人傑地靈的文明古縣,又是一個老革命根據地,歷史為其留下了寶貴的文化遺產。國家級重點文物保護單位普光羅家壩巴人文化遺址、老一輩無產階級革命家王維舟故居、王維舟紀念館以及紅33軍紀念碑等已成為燦爛的巴人文化和紅軍文化人文景觀。以樊噲土家族為代表的民族文化更是豐富多彩。宣漢山川秀美,亦有口皆碑。境內峰巒疊翠,山環水繞,花繁林茂,全縣森林覆蓋率達475%。自然生態和山水風光十分優美,有“小三峽”之稱的省級風景名勝區樊噲百里峽和川東最大的人工湖泊江口湖;有迷人的水晶宮、奇特的神龍洞;有險、奇、峻、雄、秀的四望山、香廬山、文山、峨城山等四大名山。宣羅公路沿線八大生態園示範區、項山公園、黃石白鶴林、峰城風動石、君塘花果山、明月九條溝、芭蕉楠竹場、馬渡石林等旅遊景點星羅棋佈,各具情態,旖旎迷人。

  宣漢豐富的物產也聞名遐邇。境內蘊藏茪j量天然氣、石油、煤炭以及大理石等優質礦產和358萬千瓦時的水力發電能量,可生動植物達1200多種,黃牛、奶牛、油桐、茶葉、糧油等10多個品類是全國的主要生產基地。此外,宣漢交通日益發達,東連開江、開縣接梁平縣、萬州市,南通達州市接成都、重慶兩地,西連平昌、通江接巴中市,北臨萬源市接陝西漢中和湖北襄樊。宣漢距達州市僅32公里,距河市機場38公里,襄樊鐵路、210國道、開(江)平(昌)路橫穿全境,境內縣、鄉主幹線公路縱橫交錯,四通八達,交通區位優勢非常明顯。特別是近年來,全縣綜合經濟實力顯著增強,城市和交通建設突飛猛進,旅遊開發力度加大,服務功能逐步完善,構建苭國生態旅遊大縣衁滷囓韝橧穻釆禲C

  確定思路加快建設 進軍生態旅遊大縣目標

  如何喚醒沉睡的資源,全面建成全國生態旅遊大縣?縣委、縣政府在認真調查研究的基礎上,確立了“以可持續發展為指導,以市場為導向,以資源為依托,以重點景區為龍頭,以生態旅遊為特色,以發展大旅遊、開拓大市場、形成大產業為目標,切實加強生態環境建設,努力打造獨具特色的生態旅遊新形象”的總體發展思路其總體發展目標是:到2007年,入境旅遊人數達到90萬人次,旅遊總收入達到4億元,旅遊產業增加值佔當年全縣GDP比重為6%。全縣所有公路幹線和坡以及25度以上坡耕地全部綠化,森林覆蓋率達到55%,把生態產業和生態旅遊培育成新的主導產業。到2010年,旅遊人數達到120萬人次,旅遊總收入達到6億元,旅遊產業增加值佔當年全縣GDP的比重為8%。森林覆蓋率達到57%,生態旅遊產業的規模和實力進一步發展壯大,基本建成全國生態旅遊大縣。

  同時,制定出了更為具體的景點景區建設目標:到2007年,高檔次建成州河前、後河沿線兩大水土保持林帶和宣羅、宣雙、宣樊、宣七“四條綠化通道”;將三墩天坑群的探險旅遊與百里峽風景區綜合開發,使百里峽旅遊區得到全面開發,建成國家AAA級旅遊區并申報為國家級風景名勝區;把江口湖開發建設成為國家AA級旅遊區和省級風景名勝區;把觀音山森林公園申報建成省級森林公園。到2010年,通過羅家壩巴人文化遺址的發掘與研究,開發建設與羅家壩遺址相配套的旅遊設施,使巴人文化這一精品得以推向國內外市場;把江口湖龔家明月壩建成全縣的生態旅遊示範區和川東地區規模最大、設施最齊全的休閑旅遊度假中心;把香爐山、峨城山、五馬山、筆架山森林公園申報建成省級森林公園;力爭把天生溫泉建成具有一定檔次和水平的醫用溫泉療養基地。

  為了加快開發建設進程,盡快培育生態旅遊精品,該縣組織力量對全縣生態旅遊資源進行普查和評估,規劃形成“縣城中心點,‘三河’連‘四線’(江口湖庫區的前、中、後河、宣漢至梁平、宣漢至羅江、宣漢至雙河、宣漢至樊噲),景點連成片,圍茈縣轉,處處有景看”和“遊青山綠水,看風景名勝,樂古樸風情,吃綠色食品,購名優產品”的具有宣漢特色的生態旅遊新格局。

  在景區培植上,近5年內重點抓好五個片區的建設,茩城魒|出百里峽片區、普光羅家壩片區、江口湖片區“三個旅遊精品”。一是抓好樊噲百里峽的自然保護和景區管理,抓好“峨城山竹海公園”和樊噲土家族自然村寨建設。二是保護和開發好羅家壩巴人文化遺址。三是開發江口湖,完善項山公園景點培植、花卉培植等自然景觀建設和王維舟紀念館、紅軍碑林、烈士陵園等人文景觀建設;進一步搞好江口湖庫區的綠化,建設具有規模的鬆、柏、竹、柳、果林帶;啟動龔家明月壩的遊樂設施建設。四是開發七里峽溶洞、天生溫泉,搞好“神龍洞”和“水晶宮”等旅遊景點的基礎設施建設。五是開發宣羅公路沿線的生態旅遊,把九條溝、黑龍溝建成生態旅遊區,把洋烈小三峽建成度假旅遊區。與此同時,大力抓好觀光農業園區建設,把融果草畜為一體的觀光農業和生態旅遊產業進行嫁接,圍繞“一點”、“三河”、“四線”的旅遊開發,大力發展集旅遊功能和生產功能於一體,具有較高觀賞價值和經濟效益的觀光農業園(區、帶),抓好210國道、宣羅路、宣雙路形成的現代農業示範區和宣七路沿線的現代農業示範帶以及江口湖庫區的綠色屏障建設。同時抓好特色旅遊產品的開發,開拓西塔乳品、九頂雪眉茶葉系列、佳肴牛肉制品系列、東澳粉絲、清溪白酒、樊噲“三木”藥材、桃花貢米、黃金槽優質水果、天生楠竹產品等地方土特產品市場,并不斷提高其文化品位。

  為保障“全國生態旅遊大縣”目標的實現,該縣成立了建設生態旅遊大縣工作協調領導小組,加強組織領導,搞好協同作戰,拓寬融資渠道,加快配套建設,并從規範旅遊市場秩序、提高旅遊企業服務質量、培養高素質的旅遊從業人員隊伍、擴大旅遊宣傳、拓展旅遊市場等方面茪漞d好服務管理,營造良好環境。

  雄關漫道真如鐵,而今邁步從頭越。跨越發展的戰鼓聲催人奮進,攥緊歷史機遇,踏蚇E越鼓點,宣漢人肩負時代的使命,向茈國生態旅遊大縣的美好藍圖昂首進軍。

 

Tourism goes green in Ganzi

While talking about the development of tourism in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province, a local official says they feel like they are standing on a gold mine but do not know how to dig.

What worries conservationists most is they have already started mining regardless.

The "gold mine" refers to the beautiful nature and rich traditional cultures of this part of the Khampa Tibetans populated area which covers parts of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan and Yunnan provinces.

Mighty snow-capped mountains, dense virgin forests, broad ranges, pristine alpine lakes, age-old Tibetan monasteries, and villages with lofty watchtowers are just part of the beauty that can be found in the mountainous area.

With the dramatic differences in topography and climate, it is also a centre of the "Mountains of Southwest China," an area designated by Conservation International (CI), a conservation organization based in the United States, as one of the world's top 25 biodiversity hotspots.

However, the remote area is also one of the least developed areas in the country. While commercial logging and agriculture on steep slopes have been banned by the State, the local governments and communities view tourism as a major opportunity to relieve poverty.

So a cable car was built bringing tourists to the foot of the famous Hailuogou Glaciers. A well-paved road stretches into the hinterland of the Yading National Nature Reserve. Tacky cement buildings appear on the banks of beautiful lakes; and Tibetan villages become crowded with construction projects putting up new houses offering visitors a "home-stay." The local government of Ganzi is calling for "devoted efforts to develop ecotourism."

This is why Lu Zhi, director of the CI China Programme and a biologist with Peking University, felt it urgent to organize the Khampa International Ecotourism Conference.

"This region is one of the country's richest ecologically and also the most fragile and threatened," she says.

"But recent unplanned tourism development has caused the degradation of the environment and had a negative impact on local traditional cultures. It can't be considered ecotourism at all."

Ecotourism misconceived

The conference, held in mid-November at the Hailuogou National Glacier Park, invited over 150 participants from a wide range of fields, including local government officials, conservationists from home and abroad and scholars from universities, investors and tourist industry representatives, as well as ethnic Tibetan villagers.

Through participation and communication, the organizers expected to help the region find useful and practical ways of developing ecotourism.

"But at first we expect to change many people's confused ideas about ecotourism," says Lu.

At the three-day conference, Alice Crabtree, Asia-Pacific region co-ordinator for the International Ecotourism Society, told local participants that ecotourism is not just nature-based tourism found everywhere in the country. It is the responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people. And it must focus on natural areas, be ecologically sustainable, and offer an education for tourists.

"So it can win economically and socio-culturally," she said. "It's win-win-win travel."

Zhuge Ren, chief representative of Green Globe 21 in China, introduced the ecotourism standards of the international benchmarking and certification programme and said that an ecotourism product could be certified after reaching these standards and going through the certification process.

However, though there are several scenic areas such as the famous Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area in Sichuan and a few hotels in the country which have become Green Globe 21 members, Zhuge admitted, none of them have reached the ecotourism standards of the certification organization.

"They've just reached our company standards," he said. "They are not good examples of ecotourism."

Unique approach

So are there any good examples of ecotourism in China? Wanglang was the answer of many participants.

Chen Youping, director of the Management Department of the National Wanglang Nature Reserve in Sichuan, attended the conference. In his presentation he introduced a unique ecotourism model.

"We have never paid special attention to real tourists and tourism development. We focus on scientists and scientific research," he said.

In the reserve targeting the preservation of the giant panda, researchers collect local weather data every half an hour and know the precise distribution of fauna and flora in almost every corner of the reserve, he said.

"We have the most professional equipment for observation and the most complete database for conservation," he said. "Various scientific research institutes and researchers from home and abroad queue up to co-operate with us every year. They are financially stronger, environmentally friendly, and much easier to receive than tourists. That's why we're not eager to cater to tourists."

With well-preserved nature and a complete information service, however, ecotourists still come. The annual tourism income of Wanglang amounts to about 300,000 yuan (US$36,150). Sometimes a group of six foreign ecotourists can contribute to the reserve 50,000 yuan (US$6,020) in just one week.

But the successful example of Wanglang is based on scientific research spanning 10 years and can hardly be followed by local governments and communities that are eager to benefit from tourism.

During the conference, some local officials tried to copy the designs of a number of fascinating eco-buildings put forward by experts, so as to build replicas at their scenic areas. But they were told that the replicas would look ugly, for they didn't fit the local environment, just like the buildings of over 20 different styles found at Hailuogou.

Example of poor tourism

While some examples of ecotourism may remain a bit too lofty for local participants, Hailuogou has become an example of poor tourism development for many conservationists and scholars.

According to Wang Wei, a tourism industry representative from Beijing, the Ice Waterfall at the Hailuogou Glaciers had shrunk since his previous visit only a few months ago.

"Global warming has certainly impacted on the glaciers," he said. "But the cable car close to the glaciers, tourists and resorts within the scenic area are factors behind the degradation too."

To make it easier for tourists to explore the forests near the glaciers, cement trails were laid down, which some pointed out was not the environmently-friendly thing to do.

Several hotspring resorts inside the park have tacky buildings and decorations totally alien to their setting. "These are truly ugly to me," Hitesh Mehta, a Canadian landscape architect, said in his presentation.

"They are beautiful," he said, pointing to the photos of traditional wood houses seen at Moxi Town just outside the park. "Unfortunately there are not many left."

Facing the criticism, Xiao Feng, director of the administration of the park, explained that these problems were mainly caused by several independent tourism operators inside the park and their bad management. At present, the administration is purchasing their property back to solve these problems.

However, many conference participants expressed doubts as to the local authorities' humble attitudes towards investors from the outside world.

"They spoil investors for sure," Chen Xujun said. "Most of them become indifferent to the local environment and welfare of the local communities."

A tourism investor from South China's Guangdong Province, Chen is launching an ecotourism project in the Nanling National Forest in the province. He introduced to local officials a practical method of telling whether an investor is responsible or not. "If investors come and talk about ecotourism development, but ask nothing about data for the local environment and the lifestyles of local communities," he said, "they can't be responsible investors."

He also introduced his path to ecotourism development: targeting upmarket customers, emphasizing long-term profit, taking advantage of the good designs of foreign landscape architects, and achieving environmental sustainability by charging enough to keep visitor numbers down.

Karma Tsering from the Kingdom of Bhutan provided a similar example.

Every year, only 7,000 tourists visit his country hidden in the mountains. But the average daily expenditure of each of these tourists is more than US$200. So the country brings in an annual income of over US$10 million from tourism.

"And we have protected over 60 per cent of our land," he said in his presentation. "We believe it's better to have milk and cheese always than to have beef just once."

After the conference, many of the 65 participants from the local government found that they did not discover any shortcuts for ecotourism.

"We have choices for our precious resources," said Yang Suping, head of the Ganzi government. "But we must be very cautious."